There are many different ways to harvest seafoods from the ocean, from the basic methods that are used hundreds of years to mass harvest methods with modern technologies. Each way has its own advantages as well as disadvantages. Ocean fish harvesting in the world can be divided into 3 different types: industrial, semi – industrial and traditional ocean fish harvesting. According to the environmental conditions, harvesting objects and the investing size, we can use different types to fit in certain situations… At the moment, with the development of marine technologies, semi – industrial and traditional ocean fish harvesting career can be used as much as industrial ways in some special places to be appropriate with the demands and requirements of the markets. Below are the introductions about techniques in ocean fish harvesting that are being applied in most of the fisheries in the world.
- Ship – Building and Design Technologies Using New Materials:
A large number of countries including Japan, France, Norway, South Korea… has developed the technologies in designing and constructing new models of the hull and the tank system on new fishing ships. They also use many cutting – edge techniques to design, construct, cut and joining new materials with the ones that are being used recently. Using these techniques will help the ships to be appropriate to different climate conditions, especially in hot and humid countries. It is also an effective way to cut down on the contructing price of the ships.
New materials such as: fiberglass, aluminum, plastic… are being used to build fish ships so as to increase the reliability of them as well as improve features. The ships would be able to carry more weight and lighter. With the help of new materials, maritime features can be developed easier with cheap price. The ships can be easier for maintenance and replacement as well as save the amount of timber used for ship – crafting.
- Ship Design with Back Deck Fishing Vessels:
Many countries in the world are using this model to develop their fishing ship groups. This design is used worldwide because it is very stable and sailors can feel quite comfortable to harvest ocean fish. Fishing ships designed this way can be controlled easily with proactive speed and direction. Moreover, this type of ship is a good choice for net dropping.
The price for a ship like this is quite cheap, so that sailors or fishers can own one without having to spend too much money on the materials.
- Machinery and Mechanical Equipment:
Below is a list of essential mechanical equipment for a fishing ship:
- A winch to drop and pull the fishing net
- Drop – pull fishing – line system
- Squid harvesting net system
These are the most important machinery that must have in any ships used for fishing. They help the fishers to lower the cost of human resource and guarantee safety for workers. The machines use the hydraulic system. Of course, these types of equipment can be bought easily from countries such as Japan, Korea or Phillippines… to reduce the cost in ship equipping.
- Electrical Equipment On Fishing Ships
There is a variety of choice for electrical equipment for a fishing ship. Base on the size and the weight of the ship, we can choose a large number of modern machines such as radars, navigation, vessel machines, fish detector and satellite phones…
These are essential machines that assist the detection and evaluation of fish. It ensures the safety of people and the ship when fishing on the ocean. The price of these equipments is quite expensive.
- Lighting System to Attract the Fishes:
In countries such as Japan, China or South Korea, there are many types of lighting systems such as color lights, underwater lighting system or electric – saving lights. They are very popular and used widely to attract fishes before harvesting. The lighting system can be used with the nets or with a fishing – line system for better productivity.
- Fishing – Ground Predict Technologies
In some countries, fishers apply the technologies in predicting the fishing – ground so as to increase the productivity of their work. They can predict the route of the fish, especially high value types of fish such as tuna or mackerel so that they can control fish ships to go to the correct spots in the ocean quickly.
This method helps fishers to quickly determine the fish grounds. In addition, this information can be helpful in increasing the efficiency of fish harvesting and reduce the cost of each product.
- Semi – Processed Products and Preliminary Treatment Equipment:
Korea, Japan, Taiwan and Thailand… are using the most modern equipment in ocean tune quick killing and rapid cooling systems. This helps the product to be fresh in a large amount of time after being caught and stored in fishing ships.
Quick fish killing systems are used mainly in fishing ships of Japan, Korea and Taiwan… so that the fish can be killed faster without receiving physical damages. This type of equipment helps the fishes to be fresh until they are sold at least 3 hours later.
In addition, to prevent the fish from rotting, ships are often equipped with rapid cooling tanks. These tanks decrease the temperature of the water to a very cold condition so as to prevent the decomposition of protein inside the fishes. Tunas are fresh when they are caught, but rot quickly after a short amount of time in normal environment so there should be some devices to put them into preliminary treatments before storing to cooling tanks.
Harvesting fish is one of the most important industry in most countries because this field contributes a large amount of revenue for the national budget. That’s the reason why we should know about it so as to develop and apply modern technologies to increase the productivity as well as the quality of the products.